# What does happens before relation mean in Lamport logical clocks?

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Lamport: To synchronize logical clocks Lamport defined a relation called happens-before. The Happen-Before relation can be observed directly in two situations. 1) If A & B are events in same process and A occurs before B, then A  B is true. … The Happen-Before is a transitive relation, so if AB & BC then AC.

## What is meant by happened before relation?

In computer science, the happened-before relation (denoted: ) is a relation between the result of two events, such that if one event should happen before another event, the result must reflect that, even if those events are in reality executed out of order (usually to optimize program flow).

## What is the relation of the Lamport timestamps of the two events?

With Lamport timestamps, we are assured that two causally-related events will have timestamps that reflect the order of events. For example, event h happened before event m in the Lamport causal sense. The chain of causal events is h→c, c→d, and d→m.

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## What is happened before or causal precedence?

Definition A system of logical clocks consists of a time domain T and a logical clock C. Elements of T form a partially ordered set over a relation <. Relation < is called the happened before or causal precedence. Intuitively, this relation is analogous to the earlier than relation provided by the physical time.

## How does a Lamport logical clock work?

A Lamport logical clock is a numerical software counter value maintained in each process. Conceptually, this logical clock can be thought of as a clock that only has meaning in relation to messages moving between processes. When a process receives a message, it re-synchronizes its logical clock with that sender.

## What is Lamport happened before relation?

Lamport’s “happened before” relation

The “happened before” relation (®) is defined as follows: A ® B if A and B are within the same process (same sequential thread of control) and A occurred before B. A ® B if A is the event of sending a message M in one process and B is the event of receiving M by another process.

## What happened before synonym?

Some common synonyms of preceding are antecedent, anterior, foregoing, former, previous, and prior. While all these words mean “being before,” preceding usually implies being immediately before in time or in place.

## What is the problem with Lamport clocks that vector clocks solve?

The problem with Lamport Timestamps is that they can’t tell if events are concurrent or not. This problem is solved by Vector Clocks.

## How does a Lamport algorithm work?

The algorithm works using marker messages. Each process that wants to initiate a snapshot records its local state and sends a marker on each of its outgoing channels.

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## What is Lamport algorithm in distributed system?

Lamport’s Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm is a permission based algorithm proposed by Lamport as an illustration of his synchronization scheme for distributed systems. In permission based timestamp is used to order critical section requests and to resolve any conflict between requests.

## Which of the following is one of the happened before relation rule?

The Happen-Before relation can be observed directly in two situations. 1) If A & B are events in same process and A occurs before B, then A → B is true. … The Happen-Before is a transitive relation, so if A→B & B→C then A→C.

## What are the advantages of vector clock over Lamport clock?

Vector Clocks represent an extension of Lamport Timestamps in that they guarantee the strong clock consistency condition which (additionally to the clock consistency condition) dictates that if one event’s clock comes before another’s, then that event comes before the other, i.e., it is a two-way condition.

## What do you mean by causal ordering of message?

Causal message ordering is informally defined as the delivery of messages to a process. in the order in which they were transmitted to that process. In a two process system. this problem is solvable with zero non-causal latency1 and O(1) message size overhead.